Lessing’s writing pushed boundaries and she lived life to the same beat

Doris Lessing Portrait (1950s)

Doris Lessing Portrait (1950s): Copyright CAMERA PRESS

An Unboxed blog, from Martha Griffiths, first year student of American and English Literature at the University of East Anglia.

Amongst the 110 love letters held in the Whitehorn collection at the British Archive for Contemporary Writing from Doris Lessing to her wartime lover, perhaps one gives us a greater insight into her young life, and the society she grew up in. It was written to John R. M. Whitehorn, an RAF serviceman and intimate confidante and is dated sometime around January 1945.

This letter  perfectly captures Lessing’s determination to make her own choices and express herself and her emotions towards others. It describes her relationship with both her husband and the other men that she met, mostly through Communist Party meetings. Not only is she writing to a long-term lover about her husband, but she also describes the “platonic amour” she has met recently. To many, this flirtation may come as a surprise or appear scandalous but, as she would come to say in later interviews, it was just something one did in those times.

She even joined the Communist Party out of boredom, a feeling shared by many of the RAF soldiers she met there. There is genuine affection in the note towards Whitehorn, but Lessing makes it clear that it would be an unfortunate man who attempted to interfere with her choices.

This was a woman to be reckoned with; she was totally self-aware and comfortably content to make her own choices. Lessing’s works are known for pushing boundaries and she lived her life to the same beat, whilst aware of her husband’s discomfort with her social life she was not willing to give in to the pull of domesticity.

The Doris Lessing Archive, held within UEA’s British Archive for Contemporary Writing, is an invaluable source with letters from one of the most influential female authors of the twentieth century. Her eloquence and her passion cannot mask what a formidable opponent she was if ever obstructed

Exploring the Archives: a monthly update: March 2017

Unboxed
Once again we’re grateful to our students for offering such insights into our collections. Their blog posts include ‘Men can be feminists: Lord Pethick-Lawrence writes about the suffragettes’ (Kenney Papers) and ‘Terry Pratchett on magic and realism’ (UEA Literary Festival).

Teaching
54 students and tutors attended teaching sessions this month in the Archives:

  • MA Contemporary Fiction. Doris Lessing’s Archive was the focus with particular attention on The Good Terrorist, Salman Rushdie, and Communism.
  • Publishing module for Literature, Drama & Creative Writing (LDC) PGT.
  • As part of ‘Do Something Different Week’ a seminar was run for LDC UG on the chapter outlines, draft prologues and manuscripts, of The Quickening Maze by Adam Foulds.
  • Blogging workshop. Attended by Unboxed volunteers, LDC students and Archives staff (led by Claire Hynes, Tutor in Professional Writing).

Richard Beard
The listing of this collection is now available. Beard’s latest book The Day That Went Missing (a memoir) is published this April by Harvill Secker.

Roger Deakin
BACW_RDeakin_flyer_660px_eFlyer-smallPreparations are under way for an afternoon of readings, talks and discussion to be held on 30 April ‘Roger Deakin: Exploring the Archive: Rivers and Woodlands’.

Doris Lessing

A steady interest in Lessing’s letters to John Whitehorn during the 1940s continues, in particular her work as a Hansard typist while still in her twenties, and her association with the Communist party in southern Africa.

Pritchard Papers

  • Requests have related to the architect Wells Coates (architect) and Sunspan Homes (light and airy domestic designs of the thirties); and the Lawn Road Flats’ tenants and their covert lives as Soviet spies.
  • The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo is currently exhibiting materials from the Pritchard Papers. ‘Improvement for Good: Marcel Breuer’s Furniture’ runs from 3rd March – 7th May, 2017 and at the Higashine City Museum, Yamagata 15th July – 24th September, 2017.

W.G. Sebald
Students from Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium in Berlin, Charlottenburg have submitted a guest blog post to acknowledge their memorable visit made to the Archives last summer.

UEA Literary Festival
Visitors have been watching recordings of earlier festivals including guest authors Robert Macfarlane (2008) and Richard Dawkins (2015).

UEA Collection
FT Album 61-66 Prof I P Watt Dean of English Studies 1.9.62_30.8.64We’ve been looking back at the contribution made by one of our principal founders – Ian Watt (1917-1999), Dean of English Studies at UEA. Some very relevant material was found on Watt’s short but significant time at UEA, 1962-1964. Watt was later Professor of English at the University of Stanford, Calif. [Photo: Frank Thistlethwaite Archive].

Special Collections
Eight requests.

Sebald Visit from Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium, Berlin

A guest blog from the students of Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium in Berlin, Charlottenburg who visited the WG Sebald Audiovisual collection at the British Archive for Contemporary Writing last Summer (just days after the Brexit referendum).

Thank you UEA!

This summer we are leaving school. This means also looking back on eight years at Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium in Berlin, Charlottenburg.

One unforgettable memory is our trip to England last June (2016).

During that school trip we also went to UEA because we wanted to find out more about W.G. Sebald, a well known German author who had lived in England most of his time and had taught at UEA.

Our visit to UEA was and still is an unforgettable experience.

Undoubtedly, for people who are interested in literature visiting the University of East Anglia in Norwich is  a great opportunity to gain knowledge in a very comfortable and personal way.

We were especially lucky as Professor Jon Cook offered to speak to us about Sebald.

When Professor Cook read from Sebald’s books and added stories from his personal encounters and his cooperation with Sebald we could all feel the power of this exceptional author.

That way we not only gained insight into Sebald’s work but also got to know what he must have been like in private life.

We were all particularly moved when Professor Jon Cook pointed out how devastated he was on the news of Sebald’s death and how UEA had lost a creative spirit.

WG Sebald visitors 040716We also went to the archive where we were introduced to visual and audio material, which added greatly to our impressions of Sebald’s work and life in Norwich.

On top of that Professor Cook’s explanations regarding the Brexit referendum impressed us deeply and they are as fresh today, March 29, 2017, as they were last summer.

In the end we left Norwich deeply impressed and enriched because we had spent a morning sensing the invigorating power of creativity and reason.

We would therefore like to thank Professor Cook and his staff, who introduced us to the audio and visual material, once again for making this possible.

Thank you!

Students from Heinz-Berggruen-Gymnasium, Berlin.

Terry Pratchett on Magic and Realism

Terry PratchettbAn Unboxed Blog from Electra Nanou

There was once a tape, a single, innocuous video tape, living in the UEA Archives’ snug depths. The name, Terry Pratchett, sometimes caught a knowing eye, but one or two were not enough. If only it could see the light of day, other admirers might come its way. Squinting, stuttering, it finally emerged to puff out its chest and squeak:

Arthur Miller Centre International Literary Festival (UEA) interview with Terry Pratchett, 22 November 2000

To describe this interview between Professor Christopher Bigsby and Terry Pratchett, the author of the Discworld novels, as amusing would be an understatement. Having passed away two years ago, almost to the day, every reminder of this man’s sheer character is precious. Contained within the video recording is more than a discussion on Pratchett’s life and literary accomplishments or his favourite Discworld characters or even the difference between children’s fiction and fantasy.

‘Children’s books for the respect; fantasy books for the money.’

It is one more testament to his wit and flair, as well as a tutorial on how to politely dominate an interview. And how to introduce potentially controversial topics with a smile. Perhaps, sheer naughtiness factored into certain small omissions in the transcript, available in Writers in Conversation: Volume 5 by Christopher Bigsby.

Even the first Discworld novel was created on a rebellious whim. He felt that ‘a kind of antidote’ was warranted to the Tolkienesque fantasy prevalent of the time. Little did he know how much it was needed. The crowd that attended the Terry Pratchett Memorial in April 2016, made up of children and adults alike, was proof of how important a fresh and humorous look can be to something as simple as a literary genre.

‘Discworld is a way of looking at a story.’

Each of his books, from the children’s book The Amazing Maurice and His Educated Rodents to the Discworld novel The Truth, have something to say. In his own unique way, he touched on issues like morality, equality and feminism, his philosophical undercurrents drawing the attention of philosophy professors James M. Held and James South. They produced a book titled Philosophy and Terry Pratchett, a collection of essays including ‘Plato, the Witch, and the Cave: Granny Weatherwax and the Moral Problem of Paternalism’ and ‘The Importance of Being in the Right Trouser Leg of Time’ (The Guardian). When asked about the Thief of Time, the 24th Discworld novel, Pratchett said:

‘It is… about how people perceive time, how people perceive humanity. What is it that actually makes us human.’

If there is any lesson to be learned from Terry Pratchett, it is to not be afraid to be bold and different. Labels are trivial in a world that craves imagination, an escape from reality.

‘Magic realism … is fantasy with a collar and tie on.’

With 53 books to his name not including his numerous collaborations, he was, and still is, someone writers of any genre can look up to. He lived, learnt and struggled, while writing from his heart with minimal aspirations to fame and fortune. And yet they found him.

 

Sources

Recording: Arthur Miller Centre International Literary Festival (UEA) interview with Terry Pratchett, 22 November 2000. The University of East Anglia Literary Festival Archive www.uea.ac.uk/bacw/litfest – visit the Archive to view the recording in full.

Transcript: Bigsby, Christopher. ‘In Conversation with Terry Pratchett’. Writers in Conversation: Volume 5. Unthank books, 2013. Print.

Flood, Alison. ‘Terry Pratchett’. The Guardian. 28 Nov. 2014. Web. Oct. 2016

 

Men can be feminists: Lord Pethick-Lawrence writes about the suffragettes

Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence

Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence

An Unboxed Blog from Yaiza Canopoli.

Lady Pethick-Lawrence was an important figure in the suffragette movement. In 1907 she started the publication Votes for Women, with the help of her husband. Supportive male partners are not so rare these days. But in the early 20th century, a man would more likely be scared off by a woman who wanted the vote than to stand by her side as she campaigned. Lord Pethick-Lawrence supported the movement from the start, and in the 1950s published an article, preserved in the UEA Archive, reflecting on the impressive struggle for women to get the vote.

As a prominent and proud member of the Labour party, Lord Pethick-Lawrence begins the article by explaining that this is where the movement began, and where most of the suffragette tactics were taken from. Nonetheless, the women from the Labour party had to accept other political ideologies into the community, for the movement could not have survived by remaining ‘a section of a section’. What is interesting about this article is his praise for the more radical tactics adopted by the movement, ‘which would alienate the timid and the lukewarm’. This praise is a considerable change of opinion, for in 1912 he served a nine-month prison sentence for a violent form of protest that he and Lady Pethick-Lawrence disapproved of at the time (their disapproval caused them to be expelled from the Women’s Social and Political Union).

In the article, he endearingly praises the militant women involved in the movement:

A tiny suffragette—Mary Gawthorpe—had a cabbage thrown at her by a male auditor during a park meeting. Catching it and holding it up, she remarked: “I knew a man would lose his head before long.”

This kind of appreciation and subtle humour is present throughout the article. Perhaps the most hilarious passage is his recounting of a conspiracy trial staged by the government: he and some other suffragettes were found guilty in court and the judge sentenced them to nine months in prison, but he remembers the moment with humour, saying that ‘shortly afterwards [the judge’s] two daughters joined the organisation’.

This way of remembering the suffragettes in an almost nostalgic way goes to show that feminist men are not a modern invention, and that people were different back then is not a valid excuse for any kind of oppression. We are living in a time now where meninism has become a thing, and feminists are still seen as radical and men-hating by many people all over the world. This article puts things into perspective: feminism is not new, it is not the internet corrupting women, and it is perfectly valid for men to be supportive of the movement even today.

Another thing Lord Pethick-Lawrence shows his readers (both at the time he wrote and now) is how to be a good ally: write about the movement, write about the people who were involved and who had to fight for their own rights, and don’t make it about yourself.

Unfortunately the article is not preserved in its entirety, and thus we cannot read the full extent of Lord Pethick-Lawrence’s memories of the movement, but we get a clear idea of where his thoughts are headed. He and his wife might have disagreed with some of the more radical aspects of protesting, but they were undoubtedly an important part of the organisation, and their names deserve to be remembered.

Lord Pethick-Lawrence’s article can be viewed as part of the Kenney Papers in the UEA Archives at the University of East Anglia, alongside multiple documents and forms of correspondence between the Pethick-Lawrences and other suffragettes. https://portal.uea.ac.uk/library/archives/kenney

Yaiza Canopoli

Exploring the Archives: a monthly update: February 2017

Unboxed
The second blog from our ‘Unboxed’ blogging project has been posted by student volunteer Freya Turner. Our thanks to Freya for this excellent piece: ‘Tessa Hadley on uncovering memory: do we really know our past’.

Interview
Mark Cocker, nature writer, was interviewed at UEA Careers’ ‘Working with Words’ on 25 Feb. by Archivist Justine Mann.

Teaching
Teaching sessions delivered this month in the Archives drew in around 60 students. They included:

  • ‘Digital Media, Theory & Practice’. This session was repeated on the same day.  It introduced a practical digitisation project for which the Archives provided material and follow-on support.
  • ‘Writing the Wild’. Students had access to manuscripts, diaries, letters and notebooks from the collections of Roger Deakin and Mark Cocker; and watched recordings of Richard Mabey and W.G. Sebald.
  • ‘New Worlds: Science fiction and beyond’. This session was repeated over two days and focussed on the works and character of Doris Lessing, her interest in science fiction, Memoirs of a Survivor and Shikasta.

Doris Lessing Archive
The Whitehorn letters continue to generate interest – with requests relating to Lessing’s work as a Hansard typist, and an interest in her contemporaries in Southern Rhodesia.

Kenney Papers
Biographical material relating to Rowland Kenney (1882-1961) has been supplied to us by his grand-daughter. The activities of suffragette sisters Annie and Jessie Kenney are well documented, however less is known about their brother Rowland who was a British propaganda agent operating in Norway during both the First and Second World Wars. Rowland Kenney’s papers are currently held at the University of St Andrews.

Pritchard Papers
pp-16-2-1-59-eResearchers have been interested in the Pritchard family papers; Molly Pritchard’s influence on the design and ethos of the Lawn Road Flats; and artists and designers in the nineteen thirties. We also had a visit from the current resident of Molly and Jack Pritchard’s former penthouse flat at the Isokon Building.

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UEA Collection
Staff have been gleaning information on past gigs and bands; and looking back at a 1983 exhibition on the fine bindings held in a collection owned by Sir Robert Sainsbury.

Zuckerman Archive
WWII bombing reports from the RAF Bombing Analysis Unit have been consulted from this collection.

sangatte-coastal-battery-e

Sangatte coastal battery, Zuckerman Archive

Special Collections
There were 28 enquiries.

Tessa Hadley on uncovering memory: do we really know our past?

tessa_hadley-copyright-mark-vessey-2015An Unboxed blog from Freya Turner, student blogger from the School of Literature, Drama and Creative Writing (University of East Anglia).

‘Let me take you back just a few years. It’s 2013, and the UEA Literary Festival is hosting authors such as Rose Tremain, Kazuo Ishiguro and Ian McEwan. Among them is the perhaps lesser-known Tessa Hadley (pictured right), making her first appearance at the festival. What immediately becomes apparent to the audience is her generosity and patience to treat them to a reading of one of her short stories, ‘An Abduction’, in its entirety. For those who aren’t familiar with the Literary Festival’s format, it very rarely happens that an author will read the entirety of one of their texts. For Hadley to somewhat rebel against this format only makes her appearance at the festival stand out more. Hadley has written several novels and short stories, which focus predominantly on family relationships and women. ‘The Abduction’ is no exception to this.

The story concerns a fifteen year-old girl living in Surrey in the nineteen-sixties, and it negotiates and complicates the relationships between childhood and adulthood, and trauma, time and memory. The story involves Oxford University students, women’s bodies, British suburbia, drugs and the titular abduction.

When asked about the violent domesticity of the story, and how the term domesticity is often applied to women writers, Hadley confirms that there is indeed a gender divide in the process of writing domesticity. She goes even further and argues that a novel about family somehow becomes ‘domestic’ when a woman writes it, whereas when this is written about by a man this is never the case. She is a writer who shows great maturity in her understanding of how she and other women writers are perceived in writing about the family; a writer who is concerned about the writing community as well as her own work. Hadley coherently articulates why she so often writes about the family. She believes that the novel and the family are more or less the same thing; they both concern people within small spaces who haven’t necessarily chosen to be together, and it is this very notion that allows people to grow into themselves.

When Hadley discusses memory within her story, it is almost as if something in her lights up. She points out that there is a reductive model of memory in literature, where people can access the past because it supposedly remains within their minds. In a lot of novels, she argues, characters fix something unwanted from their past that is making their present unbearable. When this process is complete, the present is fine again. Hadley doesn’t believe in this model, instead believing that processing and narrating the past is a lot more complicated. We are not reliable in terms of remembering the past, but, as she emphasises, this is interesting because this both frees us and troubles us. It becomes apparent that Hadley really understands the delicacy and dysfunctional traits of humans, and looks to celebrate it. When I watch the interview it seems like this is less a sense of personal preference for her, and more a feeling of responsibility. Another impressive thing about Hadley is that she is not afraid to put our perceptions of ourselves in different directions.

Hadley rather modestly goes on to say that the silences in her work prevent her writing from spoiling or diluting her narrative. She argues that silence is powerful. For Hadley, great writing is associated with subtlety and what is not said. What becomes apparent is that Hadley not only shows a sense of delicacy within her characters, but also in her writing style, and this is a skill that very few writers truly achieve.

At the end of the interview, Hadley tells us that ‘An Abduction’ is a story about momentarily stopping the process of growing up. It is about how, in trying to teach ourselves a lesson in life, and holding on to this lesson, we actually hinder the growth that is necessary to become an adult. It is this final remark that encapsulates just how confidently and eloquently Hadley confronts the various ways in which we naturally tend to think about and lead our lives. Her writing explores what it is like to think in the modern age, especially concerning the modern understandings of memory. She is therefore a writer for our time, and of time itself, and a writer with such a talented awareness must not go unnoticed.

The video recording of Tessa Hadley’s interview can be viewed at the British Archive for Contemporary Writing at UEA, along with interviews with many other famous authors.’   http://www.uea.ac.uk/bacw/litfest

Exploring the Archives: a monthly update: January 2017

ch-keep-off

Charlie Higson’s script

This month saw the first post of the ‘Unboxed’ blogging project. Our thanks to student volunteer Andrew for his contribution. Chance Meetings: Roald Dahl, Monica Dickens and Charles Pick.

Induction of students to the project is continuing and professional blog training workshops have been arranged for later this semester.

Preparation is under way for the use of selected items from the Kenney Papers (suffragette archive) in a digital humanities practical assignment (Digital Media Theory and Practice).

Television scripts and sketches from Charlie Higson’s Archive have been used in a media studies lecture to support discussions on the meaning of culture and the forms of culture which may not get collected and preserved.

pp-9-1-5

Alvar Aalto outside Palmio Sanatorium, Finland (completed 1933). Pritchard Papers, University of East Anglia

An Art History student from Scotland visited to consult the Pritchard Papers, in particular the papers on Finnish architect Alvar Aalto. And a screenwriter is currently researching the personal lives of Molly and Jack Pritchard.

Enquiries have been received for letters to John Whitehorn written by Doris Lessing; and for letters to or from Sylvia Plath. Although we don’t hold letters from Plath we were encouraged to find related correspondence between Ted Hughes’s sister (Olwyn Hughes) and Doris Lessing.

The Zuckerman Archive has attracted television producers researching WWII bombing raids in Hull. Further enquiries have related to the British Bombing Survey Unit, and ballistics.

On a lighter note, Roger Deakin’s walk through the ancient forests of Poland is being looked at more closely by a researcher there. More can be read about his journey from Ukraine and through Poland in his book Wildwood.

Closer to home, Alan Hunter’s series of novels on Inspector George Gently has been the focus of a piece written on literature and historic houses. Hunter used Holkham Hall in Norfolk as the basis for the setting of his novel Landed Gently (1957).

A feast of languages – Shakespeare in Translation on display at UEA

a-feast-of-languages

Shakespeare in Translation

To mark the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death in 2016, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Translation (DGT) in London put together a collection of translations of Shakespeare’s comedy A Midsummer Night’s Dream into many of the official languages of the European Union.

Seventeen languages are represented in addition to English: Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian, Spanish and Swedish. The versions were donated by Field Officers in the respective EU Member States and are on display in three exhibition cases within the lobby of the University of East Anglia’s (UEA) library.

The DGT kindly agreed to lend the collection to UEA to coincide with the workshop conference ‘Shakespeare in Translation’, hosted over the weekend of 10-11 December 2016 by the British Centre for Literary Translation in collaboration with the British Council, Globe Education, the Romanian Cultural Institute and Writers’ Centre Norwich.

The exhibition continues until Easter 2017.

Professor Duncan Large

British Centre for Literary Translation

More information: http://www.bclt.org.uk

Chance Meetings: Roald Dahl, Monica Dickens and Charles Pick

patricia_neal_und_roald_dahl

Roald Dahl and Patricia Neal photographed by Carl Van Vechten (1954) – Library of Congress Collection (public domain)

An UNBOXED blog from Andrew Kenrick

“The stories of how authors meet their publishers or publishers meet their authors are legendary and many are coincidental.”

— Charles Pick, unpublished memoirs 

It is April, 1960. Roald Dahl has just published his second collection of stories, Kiss Kiss, to some acclaim in the United States but is having difficulty making a success of it in the UK. Determined to find a publisher in Britain, he returns from America with his young family on board the SS Queen Mary. Through some incredible coincidence, on this same voyage is the publisher Charles Pick, who is glued to a copy of Kiss Kiss.

While this anecdote appears in Roald Dahl’s biography, Storyteller (1), the incredible full story is related only in Pick’s unpublished memoirs (2).

Early in the voyage, Pick learned that Roald Dahl was on board and, having enjoyed his book, was determined to speak to him, but he could never find him at dinner. Eventually he marched down to Dahl’s cabin, successfully evading the snooty purser, where he was greeted by a scene of utter chaos. The crossing was rough and Dahl’s whole family had been beset by seasickness, his two children and their nursemaid vomiting profusely as the door was opened. Clothes and luggage were strewn everywhere, as his American wife, the actress Patricia Neal, turned over the cabin searching for a lost diamond. Amidst it all, stood the striking figure of Roald Dahl himself, telling her to stop, as he “never did like it.” The diamond was, then, worth £2000.

Later, when the seas – and the family’s stomachs – had calmed, Pick took them to dinner, making Dahl an offer to publish Kiss Kiss. Unsure what to do, for he knew he had other offers waiting for him on arrival, Dahl sent a telegram to his agent, asking for advice. Pick thought no more of it until after they had docked in Southampton. There, as Pick left the customs shed, Dahl came running after him waving a piece of paper and shouting “It’s all yours! It’s all yours!” The paper was a reply from his agent, telling him to accept Charles Pick’s offer before he changed his mind. This was to be the making of Roald Dahl’s literary career in the UK.

Charles Pick (1917-2000) was one of the giants of the British publishing world in the 20th century, a distinguished literary agent and publisher who worked for Victor Gollancz and Michael Joseph ending up as chair of the Heinemann Group until his retirement in 1985. Over the course of his career he championed, nurtured and corresponded with some of the literary greats, including JD Salinger, Wilbur Smith, Graham Greene, Catherine Cookson, JB Priestley and many more.

Roald Dahl was far from the only author whom Charles Pick met by chance. Another was Monica Dickens, great-granddaughter of Charles, who would go on to become “one of the best-selling authors of her generation” (3) as well as a close personal friend of Pick’s. Pick first met Dickens in 1937 at a charity dinner organised by a friend’s mother, where he found himself spellbound by her stories of life working “below stairs” as a cook. Later, he learned who she was and told her, “if she could write a book as well as she could tell a story, she could write a bestseller”. She was signed up immediately, and six weeks later had written her first novel, One Pair of Hands, which, as Pick had predicted, became her first bestseller.

These stories, along with many others, can be read in Pick’s unpublished memoirs, which, alongside diaries, letters, obituaries, cuttings and tapes, form the Charles Pick Archive. The Charles Pick Archive shines a light on the business of some of the most important British publishers of the 20th century, and can be accessed at the British Archive for Contemporary Writing at UEA.

Andrew is a former editor turned writer, who is studying for an MA in Creative Non-fiction at UEA. He writes about food, travel and ancient history, sometimes all at once. 

1 Donald Sturrock, Storyteller: The Authorized Biography of Roald Dahl (United States: Simon & Schuster, 2011), p356-377

2 Charles Pick (1990), Memoirs. Unpublished manuscript.

3 Charles Pick, “Obituary: Monica Dickens,” The Independent (Independent), December 31, 1992, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-monica-dickens-1566170.html.